Quaternary
stratigraphy

International Commission on Stratigraphy

stratigraphical nomenclature

Stratigraphic Guide

The Guide is to promote agreements on classification so that terminologies can be developed which will be accepted internationally.

Major divisions

Their origin and age identify some of the major divisions of the rock. Dominant and petrographic features define the age of the rocks.

Regional divisions

Regional stratigraphic division usually covers the real stratigraphic subdivisions.

Annual reports

Annual Reports on rocks are generated based on client reports.

 Classification, Nomenclature, Correlation, and Interpretation of Stratified Rocks.

Stratigraphy is the branch of geology that studies rock layers; structure includes the faults and folds that result from regional & local forces acting on the area.

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What You Should Know About Activated Carbons

Activated carbons are commonly used in a lot of industries, but what are they? While these carbons are available, many people do not fully understand what they are or how they are made. If you are going to be using activated carbons, you need to know as much about them as possible.

What Is Activated Carbon?

Activated carbon is a highly porous and absorbent material which has a complex structure. As the name suggests, the structure is primarily made up of carbon, for an in depth overview, you can learn more about carbons here. The material has a network of pores which create channels in the skeletal structure of disordered layers of carbons. The channels are connected using chemical bonds and are stack unevenly. This is important because it will create the porous nature of the material.

The structure of these channels, cracks and nooks will help the activated carbon to remove impurities. It can remove these impurities from both liquid and gases. This is done through the process of absorption.

To make activated carbons a range of materials will be used. They can be made with coconut shells, lignite coal, olive pits, peat and wood. These materials will be put through either high-temperature steam activation mechanisms or chemical activation.

The Key Properties Of Activated Carbon

There are certain properties that activated carbon will have that you should know about. The first is the surface area. The higher the internal surface area of the material, the more effective the carbon will be. Activated carbon will have a very impressive surface area. Research has found that a spoonful of activated carbon will have a surface area that is the same as a soccer field.

The activation process used to create the activated carbon will create the large surface area. If steam activation is used, steam molecules at 1000°C will burn holes into carbonised raw materials. IF chemical activation is used, the phosphoric acid will build up the pores at a much lower temperature.

Another property is the total volume of pores. The pore space in the carbon is expressed using millilitres per gram or ml/g. This is volume relative to the weight. The higher the pore volume, the more effective the activated carbon will be. However, the size of the impurities to be absorbed will also need to be considered. They need to match the pore size or the full pore volume will not be used.

The last property is the pore radius which is important for absorption. The average pore radius is measured using angstroms and this will differ depending on the type of activated carbon. There are 3 common forms of activated carbon which are powder, granular and extruded. Each of these forms will also have varying sizes.

Activated carbon is a complex material that is commonly used to absorb impurities in gasses and liquid. This material can be made using two processes and have a number of properties that are key for their job. There are also different forms of activated carbon and they should be used for different purposes.

Different African Languages That You Didn’t Know About

Africa is the second largest continent in the world. So, you can understand how big the size is and the population that it has. Quite naturally, it also has a variety of communities and the languages that are spoken are also quite different. If you are a language enthusiast or a professional linguistic company like Jonckers, you will be surprised to know that there might be more than 3000 languages that are spoken in this continent. Yes, you read that right! The linguistic diversity of this continent is worth something to research about. Although the most common languages that are spoken in Africa are English, French, and Arabic but let’s take a look at some of the most uncommon languages about Africa:

Shona

This language is mostly spoken in Zimbabwe. The country has a population of around 14 million or more and about 10 million speak Shona. Shona originates from the Nguni or Bantu family of languages and it is also spoken in some parts of Mozambique and Botswana. Once you get acquainted with the pronunciation and the meaning of the different words according to the English terminology, it will not be too hard to understand what the other person is saying.

Oromo

People staying in the Horn of Africa are known to speak this language called Oromo. It is mostly spoken in Egypt, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia. The Oromo population constitutes the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia. This language was banned for several years, from 1974 to 1991 but was later adopted in the Latin alphabet. Like Shona, you have to understand the difference between the words that you normally speak in English or maybe in your native language and Oromo. It is possible to learn the language but you have to remember a lot of words to communicate with the community easily.

Igbo

Igbo is one of the official languages of Nigeria and a significant number of people from Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon speak this language. The best part about Igbo is that it has over 20 dialects but Central Igbo is the most prominent of them all. This language originated from the Volta-Niger family of languages and is very sweet to listen when spoken in the local dialect.

Amharic

This is not a very uncommon language because it is widely spoken in Ethiopia. In fact, it is another official language of Ethiopia after Oromo. If you compare Semitic languages in the world, Amharic comes second after Arabic. It has that Afroasiatic dialect that makes it one of the most popular languages in the world too. Although it is closely related to Hebrew and Arabic, Amharic has made its own ground because of the number of people that speak this language both inside and outside of Ethiopia. In addition to being a very well-spoken language, it is a very well-written language also. Each of the letters in this language represents a combination of vowel and consonant. You will find lots of online teachers who will help you learn this language because it is not difficult to memorize the letters and understand the language.

Hausa

Hausa is a very common Chadic language and also one of the official languages of Nigeria. This language originated from the Hausa people that lived in the Southern and Northern parts of Nigeria and also in Western Africa. But Hausa is not just limited to these parts in Africa. It is also spoken in Sudan, Germany, Congo, Togo, and many other countries.
Linguistic enthusiasts often try to research different languages. Well, there will not be a bigger variety than in Africa. You can look up and find out thousands of more languages that are spoken in this continent.

What is a stratigraphy in Archaeology?

All of us would have heard about archaeology, but the term Stratigraphy seems to be trending in the modern day archaeology world. So what exactly do we mean by Stratigraphy?. Stratigraphy, the modern term for archaeological theory and most of the modern exposure, processing and recording techniques, are based on Stratigraphy.

It can be defined as the study of the material which was deposited on the ground over time. Both the vertical and the lateral relationship of the strata, as well as its composition, are studied.

Law of superposition:

The law of superposition is one of the basic laws of stratigraphy, and it states that the layers which first got accumulated on the surface of the earth are much older when compared to the layers which got accumulated on top of that, provided the sequence has not be changed or disturbed.

Some of the stratified deposits include sediments, soils, rocks etc. You can also consider human-made pit holes and other structures as stratified deposits. The law of superposition has helped archaeologists to have a better and improved dating method.

Typology:

We all know how things change with time. Archaeologists have this amazing job of studying how things change with time. They use the technique of typology, and by digging down the earth from top to down, they will be able to trace objects and even buildings of a historical site which was percent way back in time.

Archaeologists

Many objects such as pots and other similar types of objects are often found in many sites. When the concept of typology is combined with stratigraphy and depending on the stylishness of the objects that are found, we can define the sequences of the stratigraphic layers.

The Archeological stratigraphy mostly focuses on the deposits which were made by the men who lived in the past. Geomorphologist on the other hand study about the flow of rivers, the change in its course, floods and how that affected the human population back in time. By comparing both the natural strata which are given by geomorphologist and the man-made strata given by archaeologists we are often able to calculate the depositional history and the chronological order in which each layer was deposited on the ground.

The uses of stratigraphy:

During times where societies and civilizations have no written history about them, stratigraphy proves to be a brilliant method to find out about their society and civilization. Even when there is recorded history, stratigraphy can be an excellent way to prove the written history.  As per the law of superposition, the upper layers are younger, and the lower layers are comparatively older and based on the law, people are able to assign dates to the layers of deposits. But we cannot say that the layers provide accurate information. There are many factors which affect the strata and archaeologists might have to alter their calculations based on that.

Types of stratigraphy

Stratigraphy is the modern day concept of studying about the layers (strata) which were deposited with time. Depending on how the layers are deposited on the ground archaeologists study the history and civilisation of people who lived during that era. The concept of stratigraphy is based on a law called the law of superposition where it is said that the layers which were deposited at the bottom are said to be older when compared to the layers which are deposited on top, unless it was not disturbed by a natural process or if its sequence has not changed.

There are several types of stratigraphy, and we have listed out some of them for you:

Geochronology:

Geochronology is the radiometric stratigraphy where rocks are studied and based on the rocks, the time sequence of geological events of the history of the earth is determined. Geochronology widely developed during the 20th century.

Magnetostratigraphy:

The polarity reversal study of the Earth’s magnetic study field by Rutten in the year 1959 gave birth to Magnetostratigraphy. In the year 1964, it is said that the magnetic polarity reversals were also found in marine deposits.

Magnetostratigraphy:

Stratigraphic Classification:

In the year 1979, ICS had published its first edition of the Stratigraphic Guide which was mainly released to promote the agreement of the various principles that are stated in Stratigraphy. In the year 1983, a new version of the stratigraphic code was proposed by the American commission and this expanded its scope. In the year 1987, the standard stratigraphic classification was accepted, and it was updated in the year 1994. An abridged version of the book was also published, and it was put on the website of International Commission on Stratigraphy.

Facies Stratigraphy:

By the word itself, we will be able to guess the meaning of this particular type. The term Facies Stratigraphy comes from Latin which means face or appearance. The combined paleontological and lithological characteristics were introduced in the year 1838 named Amanz Gressly. He made most of his studies on the mount Jura.

Chemostratigraphy:

The term Chemostratigraphy or chemical stratigraphy is the study of the variations of chemicals on the sedimentary rock sequence. The field has quite young and has come into the picture only from the 1980s. Different chemical signatures can be used to calculate the age of the rocks and the deposits.

Sequence Stratigraphy:

Sequence Stratigraphy is mostly related to geology where the deposits are divided into various units and scales, and they are studied. The method focuses on mapping the strata based on the surfaces which happen to have timelines like flooding surfaces. This method is kind of an alternative to the lithographic approach where the similarities of the rock units are discussed than its time significance.

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